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INDONESIA
 
Jakarta
 
   
The capital city of Jakarta retains much from the colonial Dutch and British periods, with many fine colonial-style buildings and the recently restored ‘old quarter’. The National Monument towers 140m (450ft) above the Merdeka Square and is crowned with a ‘flame’ plated in pure gold. The Central Museum has a fine ethnological collection including statues dating from the pre-Hindu era. Worth visiting is the Portuguese Church, completed by the Dutch in 1695, which houses a magnificent and immense Dutch pump organ. The modern Istiqlal Mosque in the city center is one of the largest in the
 
world. There is an antiques market on Jalan Surabaya and batik factories in the Karet. Throughout the island, puppet shows are staged in which traditional wayang golak and wayang kulit marionettes act out stories based on well-known legends; performances can sometimes last all night.
 
Elsewhere on Java
 
     
 
Around 13km (8 miles) from Yogyakarta is the Prambanan temple complex, built in honor of the Hindu gods Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu, which includes the 10th-century Temple of Loro Jonggrang and said to be the most perfectly proportioned Hindu temple in Indonesia. At the temple there are also open-air performances of Ramayana ballet which involve hundreds of dancers, singers and gamelanmusicians. Perched on a hill to the west of Yogyakarta is Borobudur, probably the largest Buddhist sanctuary in the world, which contains more than 5km (3 miles) of relief carvings. The Royal Mangkunegaran Palace in Surakarta is now used as a museum and has displays of dance ornaments, jewelry and 19th-century carriages used for royal occasions. Mount Bromo in the east of Java is still very active, and horseback treks to the crater’s edge can be made from nearby Surabaya. During August and September, Madura is a venue for a series of bullock races which culminate in a 48-hour non-stop carnival celebration in the town of Pamekasan.
 
Sulawesi
 
Unofficially known as ‘Orchid Island’, Sulawesi is a land of high mountains, misty valleys and lakes. In the south is Bantimurung Nature Reserve which has thousands of exotic butterflies. The island has geysers and hot springs, the most celebrated of which are at Karumengan, Kinilow, Lahendong, Leilem and Makule. Torajaland is known as the ‘Land of the Heavenly Kings’ and its people are noted for their richly ornamented houses and custom of burying the dead in vertical cliffside tombs. Ujung Pandang, formerly Makassar, is celebrated for the Pinsa Harbour where wooden schooners of the famous Buganese seafarers are moored. Fort Rotterdam, built by Sultan Ala in 1660 to protect the town from pirates, is now being restored. Racing is a popular island activity; there is horseracing and bullock-racing and at Ranomuut there are races with traditional horse-drawn carts (bendi).
   
 
Sumatra
 
Sumatra is the second-largest island in Indonesia, straddling the Equator, with a volcanic mountain range, hot springs, unexplored jungle and vast plantations. There are many reserves established to protect the indigenous wildlife from extinction. Bengkulu, Gedung Wani and Mount Loeser Reserve organize supervised safaris enabling visitors to see tigers, elephants, tapirs and rhinos at close hand. Lake Toba, once a volcanic crater, is 900m (3000ft) above sea level and has an inhabited island in the middle. Lingga village near Medan is a traditional Karonese settlement with stilted wooden houses which have changed little through the centuries. At Bukittinggi is the old fortress of Fort de Kock and nearby a zoo, market, a renovated rice barn and the Bundo Kandung Museum. The best beaches are on the east coast.
 
Bali - ‘Island of the Gods”
 
   
 
The landscape of Bali, ‘Island of the Gods’, is made up of volcanic mountains, lakes and rivers, terraced ricefields, giant banyans and palm groves and, on the coast, bays ringed with white sandy beaches. The island lies a short distance from the eastern coast of Java, across the Strait of Bali. Although its total area is only 2095 sq km (1309 sq miles), the island supports a population of approximately 2.5 million. Unlike the rest of Indonesia, the predominant religious faith is Hinduism, though in a special form known as ‘Agama-Hindu’. Stretching east to west across the island is a volcanic chain of mountains, dominated by the mighty Gunung Agung (Holy Mountain) whose conical peak soars more than 3170m (10,400ft) into the sky. North of the mountains, where the fertility of the terrain permits, is an area devoted to the production of vegetables and copra. The fertile rice-growing region lies on the central plains. The tourist areas are in the south, around Sanur Beach and at Kuta, which lies on the other side of a narrow isthmus. Nearby Nusa Dusa is also a popular tourist area and has a number of reasonably priced resorts and hotels. The island has thousands of temples – the exact number has never been counted – ranging from the great ‘Holy Temple’ at Besakih to small village places of worship. Of the many festivals, most are held twice a year and involve splendid processions, dances and daily offerings of food and flowers made to the gods. Cremations are also held in great style, though their cost is often almost prohibitive for the average Balinese family. Denpasar is the island’s capital. Sights include the Museum, a new art center and the internationally recognized Konservatori Kerawitan, one of the major centers of Balinese dancing. The Sea Temple of Tanah Lot on the west coast (a short drive from Kediri) is one of the most breathtaking sights of Bali. Goa Gajah (Elephant Cave) near Bedulu is a huge cavern with an entrance carved in a fantastic design of demonical shapes, animals and plants, crowned by a monstrous gargoyle-like head. The Holy Springs of Tampaksiring are believed to possess curative properties and attract thousands of visitors each year. Serangan Island is also known as Turtle Island because of the turtles kept there in special pens. The island lies south of Sanur and can be reached by sail boat or, at low tide, on foot. Every six months, the island becomes the scene of a great thanksgiving ceremony in which tens of thousands take part. The sacred monkey forest at Sangeh is a forest reserve which, as well as being the home of a variety of exotic apes, also has a temple. Penelokan is a splendid vantage point for views of the black lava streams from Mount Batur. It is also possible to sail across the nearby Lake Batur to Trunyan for a closer look at the crater. North of Kintamani, at an altitude of 1745m (5725ft), lies the highest temple on the island, Penulisan. Pura Besakih, a temple which dates back originally to the 10th century, stands high on the volcanic slopes of Gunung Agung. Nowadays, it is a massive complex of more than 30 temples, and the setting for great ceremonial splendor on festival days. Padangbai is a beautiful tropical coastal village, where lush vegetation backs a curving stretch of white, sandy beach. It is also the island’s port of call for giant cruise liners. Goa Lawah lives up to its name (‘bat cave’ in the local tongue), a safe and holy haven for thousands of bats which line every inch of space on its walls and roof. Non bat-lovers should avoid moonlight strolls in the area, as the animals leave for food sorties at night. Kusambe is a fishing village with a black sand beach. Lake Bratan is reached via a winding road from Budugul. The shimmering cool beauty of the lake and its pine-forested hillsides is an unusual sight in a tropical landscape.
 
Art centers
 
The village of Ubud is the center of Bali’s considerable art colony and contains the galleries of the most successful painters, including those of artists of foreign extraction who have settled on the island. Set in a hilltop garden is the Museam Puri Lukistan (Palace of Fine Arts) with its fine display of sculpture and paintings in both old and contemporary styles. Kamasan, near Klungkung, is another center, but the painting style of the artists is predominantly wayang (highly stylised). Other artistic centers include Celuk (gold and silver working), Denpasar (woodworking and painting) and Batubulan (stone carving).
 
 
Lombok
 
Only a 15-minute flight (or ferry trip) away is Lombok, an unspoilt island whose name means ‘chilli pepper’. Its area is 1285 sq km (803 sq miles). The island possesses one of the highest volcanic mountains in the Indonesian archipelago, Mount Rindjani, whose cloud-piercing peak soars to 3745m (12,290ft). The population of about 750,000 is a mixture of Islamic Sasaks, Hindu Balinese and others of Malay origin. The two main towns are Mataram, the capital, and the busy port of Ampenan; both are interesting to explore. The south coast is rocky. The west, with shimmering rice terraces, banana and coconut groves and fertile plains, looks like an extension of Bali. The east is dry, barren and desert-like in appearance. The north, the region dominated by Mount Rindjani, offers thick forests and dramatic vistas. There are also some glorious beaches, some of white sand, others, such as those near Ampenan, of black sand.
At Narmada, reached by an excellent east–west highway, is a huge complex of palace dwellings, complete with a well containing ‘rejuvenating waters’, built for a former Balinese king. At Pamenang, visitors can hire a boat and go skindiving, entering a clear-water world of brilliantly colored coral and inquisitive tropical fish.
 
 
Eastern Indonesia
 
The wildest and least visited of Indonesia’s 17,000 islands are in the east, gathered in two great archipelagos north and south of the treacherous Banda Sea.
 
Moluccan Archipelago
 
   
 
Also known as the Maluku Archipelago, it is made up of 1000 islands, many uninhabited and the rest so isolated from each other and (since the decline of the spice trade) from the outside world that each has its own culture and very often its own language. 
Halmahera is the largest island in the Moluccan group and one of the most diverse. On the coast are relic populations of all the great powers who competed for domination of the Spice Trade – Arabs, Dutch, Gujuratis, Malays and Portuguese – whilst inland the people speak a unique language that has little or nothing in common even with other unique, but related, languages on the more remote islands. Morotai, to the north, was the site of a Japanese air base during World War II, but is now engaged in the production of copra and cocoa products. 
Ternate and Tidore, tiny volcanic islands off the west coast of Halmahera, were once the world’s most important source of cloves and consequently amassed far more wealth and power than their size would seem to merit. The Sultanate of Ternate was an independent military power of considerable muscle before the arrival of the Portuguese, exerting influence over much of South-East Asia. Both islands are littered with the remains of this and the equally strident colonial era, and draw more tourists than their larger neighbor. 
Further south, Ambon was another important center of the clove trade and has over 40 old Dutch fortresses dating from the early 17th century. Banda, in the middle of the Banda Sea, is often referred to as the original ‘Spice Island’ and is famous as a nutmeg-growing center.
 
Nusa Tengara Archipelago
 
 
Nusa Penida was at one time a penal colony but now attracts visitors to its dramatic seascapes and beaches. Komodo is home to the world’s largest and rarest species of monitor lizard, while Sumba is noted for its beautiful Ikat cloth. Mount Keli Mutu is one of Indonesia’s most spectacular natural sights, famous for its three crater lakes, whose striking colors change with the light of the day. 
 
Irian Jaya
 
The western part of the island of New Guinea, this is one of the last great unexplored areas of the world. Even today, visiting ships are often greeted by flotillas of warriors in war canoes. All those intending to visit Irian Jaya must obtain special permits from State Police Headquarters in Jakarta. Travelers are advised to avoid this area at present.
   
 
Komodo Dragons
 
 

Komodo National Park is a fascinating place, with barren, desolate features and the rare, slow lumbering giant lizards that most people go there to see. These endangered animals live on a small group of islands between Sumbawa and Flores in the Indonesian archipelago. The two biggest islands in the National Park are Komodo and Rinca. The nearest island on the regular tourist route is Bali and the nearest airport is on Flores. The Komodo Dragons live on Flores too.

The Komodo Dragons, which are a kind of monitor lizard, grow up to 10 feet long and can move surprisingly fast, easily out running a human. They wander freely around the islands and can even swim between them, but so far only one tourist has been eaten, although a few of the villagers have had injuries. These huge monitor lizards only live on this small cluster of islands and although there are other big monitors elsewhere in the world, none are as impressive as these ten foot long powerful beasts, especially when viewed on these desolate prehistoric islands.
 
Surfing
 
   
 

The Indonesian archipelago is one of the world’s top surfing destinations. The best time to surf is from April to September with the best waves generally found on islands facing south and southwest, including Bali, Flores, Java, Lombok, Sumatra, Sumba and Sumbawa. Some well-known surfing beaches, such as Ulu Watu on Bali, tend to get overcrowded, but organized trips to isolated areas are widely available. Surf camps such as those at Cempi Bay (Sumbawa) or Lagundri Bay (Nias) offer basic accommodation and simple food. Windsurfing is particularly popular 

 
Diving
 
   
 

There are approximately 80,000km (50,000 miles) of coastline, reputed to contain 15 per cent of the world’s coral reefs. In spite of the obvious opportunities, Indonesia’s diving industry is still relatively young, though the number of companies offering courses and excursions is rising rapidly.
On Java island, the best diving is on the west coast, where three volcanic islands mark the remains of the Krakatoa volcano (which last erupted in 1883). Bali’s tourist stronghold in the Kuta, Nusa Dua and Suar triangle offers easy and moderate diving, with easily accessible reefs.

 Tours to more remote (and less busy) areas are available. On the northern tip of Sulawesi island, the Taman Nasional Laut Bunaken Manado Tua is a national marine reserve with particularly steep coral walls; international air connections to the island facilitate access. Further north, the lesser-known Sanggihe-Talaud and Togian islands are reached by live-aboard dive boats. In the south, Take Bone Rate is the world’s third-largest atoll, while the Tukang Besi islands have featured extensively in the films by the French underwater explorer Jacques Cousteau. Nusa Tenggara’s most popular sites are the three Gili islands near Lombok, whose calm shallow waters are ideal for beginners. Maluku consists of approximately 1000 islands and has only recently been discovered as a top diving destination. Southeast of Ambon, theBandana islands are accessible by air and offer a number of sites suitable for beginners and experienced divers.

 
Climbing
 
The island of Sumatra is perhaps the best location. Gunung Padang, near the island’s capital, Padang, is a small black basalt cliff reached via a river-paddling trip followed by a trek through rainforest. Further inland, Bukittinggi offers challenging cliffs overlooking rice paddies. The dramatic canyon rocks in nearbyHarau National Park are still largely unexplored and should only be attempted by experienced climbers.
 
Caving
 
Indonesia’s most accessible caves are on the island of Java and include Luweng Jaran, stretching over 20km (125 miles) beneath the Gunung Seuw mountain range; Gua Barat, which has the longest underground river system in the southern hemisphere; and Gombong, whose stone towers rise spectacularly to some 40m (132ft) above sea level. On Kalimantan island, Mangkalihat offers a rarely visited underground world of giant limestone corridors. Even less explored are the isolated caves near Wamena on the remote Bird’s Head peninsula in Irian Jaya.
 
Sailing
 
The majority of companies offering whitewater rafting are located in Bali, where several rivers – including the Ayung, Balian, Telega, Ubaya and Unda – are commercially rafted. Spectacular rapids can also be found on the Citartik River (western Java), the Sadan River (Sulawesi) and the Alas River (Sumatra). Rapids are generally at their strongest between November and March. River tours up the great Mahakam River on the island of Kalimantan, which is dissected by a network of rivers running from the mountainous interior to the coasts, are billed as a trip into the ‘heart of darkness’. Starting from the port city Samarinda, such tours last for several days (with onboard accommodation available) and continue deep into the upper jungle reaches, where tribal communities have largely preserved their traditions.
 
Trekking
 
Indonesia has some 120 active volcanoes and numerous volcano treks are possible: on Java island, popular volcanic destinations include Krakatoa (reached by a five-hour boat trip followed by a 30-minute climb), Mount Bromo (the most visited of Indonesia’s volcanoes) and Kawah Ijen (whose crater is filled by a turquoise-blue lake). Those preferring dormant volcanoes may head to Gunung Agung in Bali (known as the ‘Navel of the World’), Gunung Rinjani on Lombok island (which has hot springs at the top and is revered for its mystical qualities) and Keli Mutu on Nusa Tenggara Barat (whose crater contains three spectacular mineral lakes). For jungle trekking through the Indonesian rainforest, the islands of Irian Jaya, Kalimantan and Sumatra offer the most remote and untouched terrain. The best trails include trips to Bukit Barisan National Park, a remote and beautiful peninsula in Sumatra (with routes leading through tropical rainforest onto a beach inhabited by turtles); the Muller Mountain on Kalimantan (with a trail following the traditional jungle route used by the native Iban people); and Lake Habbema on Irian Jaya (a week-long trek to remote villages and mountains).
 
 
Eco tourism
 
Having been criticized in the past for the destruction of large areas of its rainforest through forest exploitation, the Indonesian government is now keen to encourage an environmentally friendly tourism policy. The growing trend for back-to-nature holidays means that numerous types of eco-tours are available. In the Tukangbeshi archipelago near Sulawesi, tourists have the opportunity to participate in coral reef preservation projects by helping to collect scientific data.